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The association of chronic hepatitis B infectivity on fetomaternal outcome: A retrospective cohurt study in a tertiary hospital

Irish T. Mendoza, MD and Stella Marie L. Jose, MD, MHPEd, FPOGS, FPIDSOG
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Philippine General Hospital, University of the Philippines-Manila

Background: Hepatitis B infection on pregnancy has been linked to preterm labor, risk of prematurity, low birth weight, and the occurrence of gestational diabetes mellitus.

Objective: To determine the association between Chronic Hepatitis B infectivity and fetomaternal outcome such as preterm birth, low birth weight, gestational diabetes and preeclampsia among pregnant patients admitted in a Tertiary Hospital.

Methodology: A retrospective cohort study was done among pregnant women diagnosed with chronic hepatitis B infection admitted in a tertiary hospital from January 1, 2014 to December 31, 2018. The association of Hepatitis B infectivity and fetomaternal outcomes namely preterm birth, gestational diabetes, preeclampsia and low birth weight was determined

Results: Chronic Hepatitis B infection had 1.43% prevalence among the study group. 149 patients were able to able to fulfill the inclusion criteria. Pregnant women with high infectivity Hepatitis B infection tend to be younger, have lower BMI, have lesser gravidity and parity than patients who are nonreactive to Hepatitis B e-antigen. AST and ALT were also higher among those with high infectivity Hepatitis B. However, there was no significant difference among the two groups in terms of elevated ALT. There was no significant association between Hepatitis B infectivity and fetomaternal outcomes such as preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, preterm birth and low birth weight. There is no increased risk for patients with high infectivity for preeclampsia, gestational diabetes mellitus, and low birth weight. There appears to be an excess risk in the likelihood of preterm birth/labor among those women who have a high infectivity Hepatitis B infection during pregnancy.

Conclusion: The prevalence of chronic hepatitis B infection among Filipino pregnant women admitted in a tertiary hospital was 1.43% from 2014 to 2018. There was no association between chronic hepatitis B infectivity and preeclampsia, Gestational diabetes mellitus. There seems to be an increased risk for HBeAg positive patients for preterm birth preterm labor, and occurrence of low birth weight, but was not statistically significant in the study population.